Ostrich (Struthio camelus)
Emu (Dromaius [or Dromiceius] novaehollandiae)
Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus)
Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
If we pronounce the title Mrs. as “missus,” why is there an r in it? Despite its pronunciation, the abbreviation Mrs. is derived from the title mistress, which accounts for that confusing extra letter. Mistress is the counterpart of master, which—you guessed it—is abbreviated to Mr. (Of course, English speakers now pronounce the title Mr. as “mister.”)
While mistress may have distasteful connotations today, in the mid-18th century the title referred to a woman of economic or social capital. Mrs. was an honorific: a woman referred to as Mrs. generally had servants or was part of an upper social echelon. Most notably, the title Mrs. did not signify that a woman was married, just like Mr. today. In fact, Samuel Johnson’s dictionary of 1755 offers six definitions for the word mistress, which range from the respectful (“a woman who governs” or “a woman skilled in anything”) to the ironic (“a term of contemptuous address” or “a whore or concubine”), but no definition mentions marital status.
The use of Mrs. to refer to a married woman is linked to the history of another title: Miss. Miss became a popular title in the late 18th century and specifically referred to an unmarried woman (often a schoolteacher) of a high social status. (Originally, Miss was actually a title for young girls, while Masterwas the title for boys.) This, according to scholar Amy Erickson, caused a shift in the use of Mrs. to signify a married woman in the late 18th century and still informs our use of the title Mrs. today.
How the pronunciation of mistress turned to “missus” is somewhat unclear. Erickson cites John Walker’s A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and Expositor of the English Language from 1828: “The same haste and necessity of dispatch, which has corrupted Master into Mister, has, when a title of civility only, contracted Mistress into Missis.” The change in pronunciation was essentially a colloquial and utilitarian shortening, and by the tail end of the 18th century, this pronunciation was the preferred one.
WRITTEN BY: Cydney Grannan
Antarctica, Earth’s coldest continent, is known for its remoteness, its unique fauna, and its frigid surface of ice. Around Antarctica’s periphery, dozens of ice shelves (that is, masses of glacier-fed floating ice that are attached to land) project outward into the Southern Ocean. The two largest ice shelves, the Ross Ice Shelfand the Ronne Ice Shelf, span a combined area of nearly 350,000 square km (about 135,000 square miles)—an area roughly equivalent to Venezuela—but Antarctica’s Larsen Ice Shelf, the continent’s fourth largest, has received the bulk of the attention over the last 25 years because it is slowly coming apart. The latest episode in this saga occurred between July 10 and July 12, 2017, when a one-trillion-metric-ton chunk of ice—possibly critical to holding back a large section of the remaining shelf—calved (that is, broke away).
The Larsen Ice Shelf is located on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula and juts out into the Weddell Sea. It originally covered an area of 86,000 square km (33,000 square miles), but its footprint has declined dramatically, possibly as a result of warming air temperatures over the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century. In January 1995 the northern portion (known as Larsen A) disintegrated, and a giant iceberg calved from the middle section (Larsen B). Larsen B steadily retreated until February–March 2002, when it too collapsed and disintegrated. The southern portion (Larsen C) made up two-thirds of the ice shelf’s original extent, covering an area of about 50,000 square km (19,300 square miles) alone. Its thickness ranges from 200 to 600 meters (about 660 to 1,970 feet). Sometime between July 10 and July 12, 2017, a 5,800-square-km- (~2,240-square-mile-) section—some 12% of the Larsen C—broke away. Signs of Larsen C’s impending fracture date back to 2012, when satellite monitoring detected a steadily growing crack near the Joerg Peninsula at the southern end of the shelf. NASA and ESA satellites tracked the rift as it grew to more than 200 km (124 miles) in length and the huge iceberg separated from the continent.
Although some 88% of Larsen C remains, many scientists worry that it will fall apart like Larsen A and Larsen B, because the loss of such a huge area of the shelf’s ice front may make the remainder of the ice shelf less stable. The shelf’s mass, along with the fact that it is pinned behind shallow undersea outcrops of rock below, creates a natural dam that significantly slows the flow of the ice into the Weddell Sea. Scientists note that the section that calved was not held back by rock, so they are less worried that the loss of the calved section will result in the shelf’s wholesale disintegration in the near term. Some scientists even concede that the calved area could regrow to form a new ice dam that reinforces the shelf. However, the results of ice-calving and glacier-flow models predict that the shelf will continue to break apart over the course of years and decades.
Calving is a natural process driven, in part, by seasonal changes in temperature and the pressures associated with the build-up of compressional stress on the ice. Some studies argue that spring and summer foehns (warm dry gusty winds that periodically descend the leeward slopes of mountain ranges) have also contributed to the weakening of the ice. As investigations into ice shelf dynamics continue, such large iceberg calving events are often regarded as symptoms of climate changeassociated with global warming. While global warming may turn out to play a part in ice shelf calving events, scientists disagree on the role, if any, the phenomenon has played in recent developments on Larsen C.
An earlier version of this article was published on the Britannica blog Advocacy for Animals.
The partnership between humans and animals dates back to the first domestication of animals in the Stone Age, as long as 9,000 years ago. But never have animals provided such dedicated and particular help to humans as they do today in the form of trained service, or assistance, to people with disabilities. These animals, usually dogs, help people accomplish tasks that would otherwise be prohibitively difficult or simply impossible. Service animals are not pets but working animals doing a job. Thus, legislation—such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) in the United States and the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) in the United Kingdom—makes service animals exempt from rules that prohibit animals from public places and businesses.
The most familiar service animals are guide dogs who help visually impaired people move about safely. Systematic training of guide dogs originated in Germany during World War I to aid blindedveterans. In the late 1920s Dorothy Harrison Eustis, an American dog trainer living in Switzerland, heard of the program and wrote a magazine article about it. The publicity led her to her first student, Morris Frank, with whose help she established a similar training school in the United States in 1929, the Seeing Eye (now located in Morristown, New Jersey).
Puppies are often bred for the purpose by the various organizations that train guide dogs. German shepherds, Labrador retrievers, and Labrador-golden retriever crosses are the most widely used breeds because of their calm temperaments, intelligence, natural desire to be helpful, and good constitutions. Puppies spend their first year with foster families who socialize them and prepare them for later training by teaching them basic obedience skills. At the age of approximately 18 months, guide dogs enter formal training, which lasts from about three to five months. During this period the dogs learn to adjust to a harness, stop at curbs, gauge the human partner’s height when traveling in low or obstructed places, and disobey a command when obedience will endanger the person.
In recent years, hearing dogs have become increasingly common. These dogs, usually mixed-breed rescues from animal shelters, are trained to alert their human partners to ordinary sounds, such as an alarm clock, a baby’s cry, or a telephone. The dogs raise the alert by touching the partner with a paw and then leading him or her to the source of the sound. They are also trained to recognize danger signals—such as fire alarms and sounds of intruders—and to raise the alert by touching with a paw and then lying down in a special “alert” posture, at which time the human partner can take appropriate action.
Dogs can be trained for a great variety of assistance purposes. For example, Service Dogs for America (SDA)/Great Plains Assistance Dogs Foundation, Inc., trains several categories of assistance animals, including service dogs who help people who use wheelchairs and other mobility devices; hearing dogs; seizure-alert or seizure-response dogs, who help persons with seizure disorders by activating an electronic alert system when symptoms occur (some can even predict the onset of a seizure); and therapeutic companion dogs, who provide emotional support for people in hospices, hospitals, and other situations in which loneliness and lack of stimulation are continual problems. There are many programs that train and certify pet animals, especially dogs and cats, as therapy animals who visit such institutions and bring much-welcomed companionship to patients.
Animals are also used in programs such as animal-assisted therapy (AAT). In the words of the Australia-based Delta Society, AAT is a “goal-directed intervention” that utilizes the motivating and rewarding presence of animals, facilitated by trained human professionals, to help patients make cognitive and physical improvements. For example, an elderly patient in a nursing home might be given the task of buckling a dog’s collar or feeding small treats to a cat, activities that enhance fine motor skills. Goals are set for the patients, and their progress is measured.
Dogs and cats are not the only animals who can assist humans with disabilities. Capuchin monkeys—small, quick, and intelligent—can help people who are paralyzed or have other severe impairments to their mobility, such as multiple sclerosis. These monkeys perform essential tasks such as turning on lights and picking up dropped objects. One of the more unusual assistance animals is the guide horse. An experimental program in the United States trains miniature horses to guide the visually impaired in the same way that guide dogs do. The tiny horses may be an alternative for people who are allergic to dogs or who have equestrian backgrounds and are more comfortable with horses.
Certain dogs and other animals have special skills similar to those of the seizure-assistance dogs, such as the ability to detect a diabetic’s drop in blood sugar and alert the person before danger occurs. The sometimes uncanny natural abilities of animals can benefit humans in many ways. Reputable organizations that train assistance animals also take steps to ensure that the animals are cherished and lead rewarding, enjoyable, and healthy lives. When the animals’ helping careers are over, provision is made for their well-deserved retirement.
Plastic is cheap and durable and has revolutionized human activity. Modern life is addicted to and dependent on this versatile substance, which is found in everything from computers to medical equipment to food packaging. Unfortunately, an estimated 19 billion pounds (more than 8.5 million metric tons) of plastic waste ends up in our oceans every year. Much of this plastic comes from single-use packaging, such as soda bottles and produce bags, and from other single-use products such as straws and disposable diapers. One study suggested that by the year 2050 there will be more plastic by weight in the oceans than fish!
Plastic pollution is more than unsightly. It has a deadly and direct effect on wildlife. Many marine organisms get physically entangled in plastic trash and either drown or slowly starve to death. Others eat the plastics, mistaking the ubiquitous materials for food. Leatherback sea turtles often confuse plastic bags for their jellyfish prey and asphyxiate. Seabirds, especially albatrosses, and other birds that scoop food from the sea have been found dead on their nests, their bellies too full of plastics to survive. A recent study found plastic trash in 90 percent of seabirds, with pieces ranging from bottle caps to rice-sized fragments that look like seeds.
Perhaps even more worrisome is microplastic pollution. The vast majority of plastics are not biodegradable, meaning they break down into smaller and smaller particles but never leave the environment entirely. Pieces smaller than 5 mm (0.2 inch) are classified as microplastics, and it is estimated that a significant portion of all plastic pollution in the oceans is now in this category. Microplastics also come from cosmetics, body washes, and toothpastes, which use tiny pieces of plastics as exfoliants and abrasives, and from items of synthetic clothing that shed minute fibers each time they are washed. These particles and fibers are too small for waste management systemsto filter and are directly discharged into the oceans. There is concern that these microplastics and/or the endocrine-disrupting chemicals they contain will bioaccumulate (become progressively more concentrated in the bodies of organisms up the food chain), since they are about the same size as plankton that serve as the base of the food chain. Many marine organisms have already been found with microplastics in their bodies. Studies on marine worms and oysters have found that microplastics disrupt their feeding and reproduction, causing a failure to thrive. These tiny fragments could also contaminate humans directly, as microplastics have been found in sea salt sold for human consumption.
Disturbingly, global plastic production doubles every 11 years, meaning the amount of plastic pollution will only continue to increase without drastic changes. To help battle this dire problem, be aware of your consumption of single-use plastics—it will likely shock you to realize how seemingly everything comes in plastic. Reduce your consumption of these products and reuse the containers whenever possible. Avoid health and beauty products that use plastic microbeads. Buy reusable bags, straws, and glass or metal beverage containers. Buy pantry basics, like rice and beans, in bulk, and avoid putting your produce in plastic bags for the short trip home. Recycle the plastic you do use, but be aware that not every plastic can be recycled. Participate in beach, river, or lake cleanups and help raise awareness of the problem. Encourage your employer and the companies and restaurants you patronize to facilitate greener options, such as paper products over plastic disposables. Support legislation that targets plastic pollution and the fossil fuels from which they are made. The challenge is huge, but, like plastics themselves, small actions accumulate.
Sperm whales (Physeter catodon), or cachalots, are the largest of the toothed whales, with males up to 19 meters (62 feet) long—more than five times the length of a large elephant—and females up to 12 meters (39 feet) in length. They are easily recognized by their enormous square head and narrow lower jaw. Probably the most famous sperm whale was Moby Dick, the great white whale from Herman Melville’s classic novel of the same name. (As far as we can tell, Moby Dick was the only sperm whale that delivered a unique brand of karmic justice to one-legged sea captains bent on vengeance.) Despite the public’s passing familiarity with sperm whales, many people have wondered why they are so named. Are they called sperm whales because their body shape is similar to that of male sex cells, or is there another reason?
The whale’s common name originated during the heyday of the commercial whaling industry, from the end of the 18th century through the 19th century. The head of the sperm whale contains an enormous fluid-filled organ (which whalers called the case). During whale harvests, this organ, now called the spermaceti organ, was discovered to contain a white liquid that whalers mistook for the sperm of the whale. The spermaceti organ is unique to sperm whales, although bottlenose whales possess a similar organ. It has a volume as large as 2,000 liters (530 gallons) and can extend through 40 percent of the whale’s length.
Whalers valued spermaceti (the name of the material within the spermaceti organ) because it could be cooled into a wax that could be made into ointments, cosmetic creams, fine wax candles, pomades, textile finishing products, and industrial lubricants. The whale’s spermaceti organ and blubber also hold sperm oil, a pale yellow oil that was used as a superior lighting oil and later as a lubricant and in soap manufacturing.
WRITTEN BY: John P. Rafferty