Quantum computers ‘one step closer’

Quantum computingImage copyright SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Quantum computing has taken a step forward with the development of a programmable quantum processor made with silicon.

The team used microwave energy to align two electron particles suspended in silicon, then used them to perform a set of test calculations.

By using silicon, the scientists hope that quantum computers will be more easy to control and manufacture.

The research was published in the journal Nature.

The old adage of Schrödinger’s Cat is often used to frame a basic concept of quantum theory.

We use it to explain the peculiar, but important, concept of superposition; where something can exist in multiple states at once.

For Schrodinger’s feline friend – the simultaneous states were dead and alive.

Superposition is what makes quantum computing so potentially powerful.

Standard computer processors rely on packets or bits of information, each one representing a single yes or no answer.

Quantum processors are different. They don’t work in the realm of yes or no, but in the almost surreal world of yes and no. This twin-state of quantum information is known as a qubit.

Unstable liaisons

To harness their power, you have to link multiple qubits together, a process called entanglement.

With each additional qubit added, the computation power of the processor is effectively doubled.

But generating and linking qubits, then instructing them to perform calculations in their entangled state is no easy task. They are incredibly sensitive to external forces, which can give rise to errors in the calculations and in the worst-case scenario make the entangled qubits fall apart.

As additional qubits are added, the adverse effects of these external forces mount.

One way to cope with this is to include additional qubits whose sole role is to vet and correct outputs for misleading or erroneous data.

Module with mountImage copyright  ION QUANTUM TECH GROUP, UNI SUSSEX
Image captionResearchers are taking multiple approaches to building quantum computers; this picture is of the “ion trap” variety

This means that more powerful quantum computers – ones that will be useful for complex problem solving, like working out how proteins fold or modelling physical processes inside complex atoms – will need lots of qubits.

Dr Tom Watson, based at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, and one of the authors of the paper, told BBC News: “You have to think what it will take to do useful quantum computing. The numbers are not very well defined but it’s probably going to take thousands maybe millions of qubits, so you need to build your qubits in a way that can scale up to these numbers.”

In short, if quantum computers are going to take off, you need to come up with an easy way to manufacture large and stable qubit processors.

And Dr Watson and his colleagues thought there was an obvious solution.

Tried and tested

“As we’ve seen in the computer industry, silicon works quite well in terms of scaling up using the fabrication methods used”, he said.

The team of researchers, which also included scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, turned to silicon to suspend single electron qubits whose spin was fixed by the use of microwave energy.

In the superposition state, the electron was spinning both up and down.

The team were then able to connect two qubits and programme them to perform trial calculations.

They could then cross-check the data generated by the quantum silicon processor with that generated by a standard computer running the same test calculations.

The data matched.

The team had successfully built a programmable two-qubit silicon-based processor.

Commenting on the study, Prof Winfried Hensinger, from the University of Sussex, said: “The team managed to make a two qubit quantum gate with a very respectable error rate. While the error rate is still much higher than in trapped ion or superconducting qubit quantum computers, the achievement is still remarkable, as isolating the qubits from noise is extremely hard.”

He added: “It remains to be seen whether error rates can be realised that are consistent with the concept of fault-tolerant quantum computing operation. However, without doubt this is a truly outstanding achievement.”

And in an accompanying paper, an international team, led by Prof Jason Petta from Princeton University, was able to transfer the state of the spin of an electron suspended in silicon onto a single photon of light.

According to Prof Hensinger, this is a “fantastic achievement” in the development of silicon-based quantum computers.

He explained: “If quantum gates in a solid state quantum computer can ever be realised with sufficiently low error rates, then this method could be used to connect different quantum computing modules which would allow for a fully modular quantum computer.”


Toronto Wolfpack plot financial path to Super League rugby

Toronto Wolfpack's Quentin Laulu-Togaga'eImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionToronto play in the second-tier Championship this season

With the new rugby league season about to kick-off, the sport’s most exotic club is ready to take to the skies again for a campaign of trans-Atlantic battle.

Canadian club Toronto Wolfpack created a stir when they joined the third tier of the English rugby league system last year, as it meant round trips of around 7,000 miles for away games.

The club and its main sponsor, Canadian airline Air Transat, paid – and will do so again this season – for their European opponents’ eight-hour flights to and from Canada for away games against the Wolfpack.

Toronto Wolfpack cheerleadersImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionThe club is looking to boost its presence in Canada and in the UK

After running away with the title last year, the Wolfpack will play in the second-tier Championship league this season, competing against a host of powerful English clubs, plus Toulouse in France.

The club admits it made a financial loss last year, but insists that was expected as part of a longer-term business plan designed to reach the riches of the top tier of rugby league.

‘Right trajectory’

“It is a five year plan to get to the Super League,” the Wolfpack’s general commercial manager Scott Lidbury, an Australian who grew up watching rugby league, tells me.

Toronto Wolfpack's Jonny PownallImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionThe club will face a number of historic and powerful English club sides this season

“We are in year two of that plan, we are in the Championship and things are on the right trajectory. Promotion this year is obviously the goal. We would be disappointed if we did not finish in the top four.”

Coming among the top quartet would give them a chance at promotion via the Qualifiers Super 8s playoffs.

Mr Lidbury adds: “It would not be the end of the world if we did not go up, but we feel confident, particularly with the players we have signed.”

He says if they were not promoted the business can sustain its various outgoings, from travel and stadium hire to player salaries and media operations.

Toronto Wolfpack's Quentin Laulu-Togaga'e (in white)Image copyrightALAMY
Image captionPromotion to the Super League is the club’s sporting and business goal

But promotion to the Super League would bring a huge financial boost in terms of TV rights money from Sky, and more and bigger sponsorship deals.

Last season’s budget was 3.4m Canadian dollars ($2.7m; £2m), and is set to be more this year as the club has moved out seven players from last season, but brought in 10 more.

Centre of excellence

The Wolfpack’s main financial backer is Australian mining tycoon David Argyle, who grew up playing rugby.

“David is 100% in it for the long term,” says Mr Lidbury. “He has a very strong vision, he is a big driver of Toronto as a regional centre of rugby excellence, for both codes.”

Toronto Wolfpack fanImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionThe club wants to increase its number of season-ticket holders

The Wolfpack play their games in blocks of away matches followed by home ones in the summer, to cut down on criss-crossing the Atlantic and also because the harsh Canadian winter extends into the start of the season.

This year they will play 11 away games, then two at home, then two on neutral English grounds, then eight at home.

Chief executive and club founder Eric Perez secured the use of 10,000-seater Lamport Stadium in Toronto, and last year average home gates were a healthy 7,000 (though half of those attending had complimentary tickets).

Eric PerezImage copyrightALAMY
Image captionEric Perez is the founder and chief executive of the Wolfpack

The team wants bigger gates this season, and to boost its 650 season-ticket holders by at least 50%.

A UK-based business development manager has also been appointed to bring in British commercial deals, and to deal with things like new Toronto player registrations and obtaining relevant visas for visiting players.

In addition, the club has now made the Platt Lane Sports Complex in Fallowfield, south Manchester, its full-time UK base.

The case of Barrow Raiders

Barrow RaidersImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionBarrow Raiders won the League 1 Cup last season

Each away team can travel free via Air Transat when they play in Toronto; being able to take a full squad, coaches and ancillary staff, at what has been promised by rugby league authorities as no cost.

However, last season Barrow Raiders, which played in Canada twice, found there was a financial price to pay.

It had to pay for things like coach travel to and from the airport, extra baggage, visas for some players at £80 each, and food and drink for 25 players and staff. It cost the club around £4,000 for the regular League One fixture in Canada.

When the teams played again in the Super Eight playoffs in Toronto, fans set up a funding page and raised nearly £3,000 to cover the club’s expenses. And while 30 fans made the trip for the first game, none went for the second.

The clubs will play home and away again in the Championship this season.

‘Major partner’

Principal sponsor Air Transat, signed on a three-year deal, provides 540 airline seats a year, which sees the club fly with 35 people when it visits Europe, and opposition clubs offered 25 free transatlantic return flights.

Air Transat owns Canadian Affair travel website, which offers away team fans weekend packages in Toronto, including hotel and match ticket.

“They are a major partner for us and play a crucial role in our operations,” says Mr Lidbury. “They are the perfect example of a brand who can benefit from association with ourselves.

“Like one of our other major partners, Maple Leaf Diamonds, they are a Canadian brand looking to be stronger in the UK.”

Conversely, the club’s UK sponsors such as Manchester Metropolitan University get coverage in Canada.

A fan’s view: Steve Newcombe, London Broncos Supporters Association

London Broncos (grey/black) v HalifaxImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionLondon Broncos play their home games in Ealing, west London

“They knocked us out of the Challenge Cup in London last year, and their visit created a buzz. They are a brash organisation and good luck to them, they wear their hearts on their sleeves.

“They also have healthy crowds at their home games. They will be looking to build fan support not only in Toronto, but among Canadians in the UK.

“I won’t be going to Canada for our away Championship game, but a couple of dozen fans will go to Toronto.

“With the Wolfpack having a major base in Manchester they are buying English-based players who might have gone to other clubs here, and that has caused debate among rugby league fans.”

‘TV revenues’

The Wolfpack has an unusual TV arrangement whereby it films its own home matches and gives the footage free to CBC Online and cable channel Game TV.

Although they lose money on the operation they feel it is vital in generating wider awareness.

“Our goal is to grow our reach, and develop our revenue streams, and broadcast is something we are working on all the time, developing Wolfpack TV platforms,” says Mr Lidbury.

“We hope that in year three we would be able to start driving some TV rights revenues. We believe we have a very bright sporting and business future.”

Victorian nymphs painting back on display after censorship row

Hylas and the Nymphs by JW WaterhouseImage copyrightMANCHESTER ART GALLERY
Image captionHylas and the Nymphs by JW Waterhouse dates from 1896

A gallery is to put a Victorian painting of naked adolescent girls back on display after a row over censorship.

Manchester Art Gallery said it took down Hylas and the Nymphs by JW Waterhouse to “encourage debate” about how such images should be displayed.

But critics accused curators of being puritanical and politically correct. The painting will return on Saturday.

“It’s been clear that many people feel very strongly about the issues raised,” Manchester City Council said.

The 1896 painting was removed a week ago in an attempt to rethink the “very old-fashioned” way images of women’s bodies were exhibited as “either as passive beautiful objects or femmes fatales”.

Curator Clare Gannaway said: “It’s not about saying these things can’t exist in a public gallery – it’s about saying, maybe we just need to challenge the way these paintings have been read and enable them to speak in a different way.”

Visitors were invited to write their views about the decision on sticky notes and post them in the vacant space.

Manchester Art Gallery
Manchester Art Gallery
Image captionVisitors can stick notes to the wall where the painting hung

But after a backlash, the city council, which runs the gallery, announced that the painting would return to the wall.

The gallery’s interim director Amanda Wallace said: “We were hoping the experiment would stimulate discussion, and it’s fair to say we’ve had that in spades – and not just from local people but from art-lovers around the world.

“Throughout the painting’s seven day absence, it’s been clear that many people feel very strongly about the issues raised, and we now plan to harness this strength of feeling for some further debate on these wider issues.”

The gallery is now planning a series of public events “to encourage further debate”.

‘Killing any debate’

Speaking on Thursday, Clare Gannaway denied that the gallery was censoring the picture, but there were strong reactions on social media and in the art world.

“Removing art due to political concerns is exactly censorship,” wrote Gary Brooks on Twitter.

“I think you can spark a debate without removing the painting,” said Ben Perkins.

Professor Liz Prettejohn, who curated a Waterhouse exhibition at the Royal Academy in London in 2009, told BBC News: “Taking it off display is killing any kind of debate that you might be able to have about it in relation to some of the really interesting issues that it might raise about sexuality and gender relationships.

“The Victorians are always getting criticised because they’re supposed to be prudish. But here it would seem it’s us who are taking the roles of what we think of as the very moralistic Victorians.”

The painting’s initial removal was filmed to be made into a new piece of video art for artist Sonia Boyce’s exhibition at the gallery in March.

Postcards of the painting were also taken out of the gallery shop.

The furore came two months after two sisters started a petition asking the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York to remove, or at least reimagine the way it presented, a painting by Balthus of a neighbour’s daughter in an erotic pose.

The sisters said the Met was “romanticising voyeurism and the objectification of children”.

The museum refused to remove it, saying it wanted to encourage “the continuing evolution of existing culture through informed discussion and respect for creative expression”.

BBC News

J.R.R. Tolkien’s other adventure: Courting and marrying Edith Bratt

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The legendary novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings have already withstood the test of time, confirming the legacy of J.R.R. Tolkien. However, not many readers may be familiar with Tolkien’s personal struggles when it came to marriage and the outcome.

The story is of his wife, and muse, Edith Bratt.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, known as Ronald in his family, met Edith, who was three years older than him, when he and his brother, Hilary, moved into a boarding house on Duchess Road in Edgbaston, where she lived. Edith and Hilary Tolkien got along very well and they frequently spent time together; however, there was a special spark between Ronald and Edith. They didn’t share the same interests but were on the same level in emotional ways.

According to the English biographer Humphrey Carpenter, she had no interest in his love of books and languages, just as he wasn’t much into her love of piano-playing, but that didn’t prevent them from smuggling food out of the kitchen and making secret feasts in Edith’s room. Their everyday adventures included visiting tea shops and throwing sugar-cubes into the hats of passers-by. Carpenter described their relationship as one that was meant to flourish since they were both orphans who needed affection and kindness and they realized that they were capable of giving that to one another. In the summer of 1909, they fell in love.

Not everyone was happy with this romance. The guardian of Tolkien, Father Morgan, thought Edith was the reason that Ronald failed his exams, and he considered it unfortunate that his surrogate son was having a romantic affair with an older, and on top of everything, Protestant woman. He ordered him not to meet her or even talk to her until he was 21 years old. Ronald, who was not rebellious and aware that he was dependent upon Father Francis’ financial support, obeyed his demand.

At that time, Ronald was studying for a scholarship at the Oxford University, a challenge that he didn’t succeed in achieving as his young mind was presumably occupied with Edith. He failed the entrance exam and couldn’t prove to Father Francis that Edith wasn’t his main distraction regarding schooling. He recorded in his diary entry on January 1st, 1910, “Depressed and as much in dark as ever. God help me. Feel weak and weary.”

His disappointments during that period were vividly described by Tolkien himself in one of his letters to his son Michael, where he told him that he had to choose between obeying and respecting his guardian who was like a father to him and the love he felt for Edith. He continued by saying that he had never regretted his decision to wait, but he was aware that it was pretty hard on Edith. He knew that she was entirely free and hadn’t made any promise to him, having complete freedom to marry any other person. For almost three years, he didn’t write to her or see her and he felt completely devastated. He was distracted and, ultimately, failed in his primary year at college.

It can be said that Ronald was counting the days until his 21st birthday when he could finally write to Edith. At that time, she was living with C. H. Jessop, a family friend, in Cheltenham. He declared his love for her, which as he said, never ceased, and finally asked her to marry him.

Her answer left him heartbroken. Edith replied that she was already engaged to George Field, the brother of one of her friends and that she had said “yes” to him. However, she added that her decision was one of convenience because she had believed that Tolkien no longer cared for her. Fortunately, she finished the letter saying that his words made her reconsider her feelings towards him as well as her marriage decision regarding Field.

On January 8, 1913, Tolkien traveled by train to Cheltenham where Edith was waiting for him at the railroad station. They walked and talked for hours. When the day was over, Edith accepted Tolkien’s proposal. She returned her engagement ring to Field, leaving him shocked and his family insulted.

Learning of Edith’s new plans, her guardian wrote her that although he didn’t have anything personal against Tolkien, he considered his prospects to be very poor as he didn’t have any profession or career that would provide Edith stability as his spouse.

Just before their engagement, Edith announced that she decided to convert to Catholicism and that Tolkien had insisted on her doing so. Her guardian was quite upset, for like many others of his age and class, he was strongly anti-Catholic.

In January of 1913, Edith and Tolkien were engaged in Birmingham and on March 22, 1916, they finally married at St. Mary’s Immaculate Roman Catholic Church, Warwick. With a humorous tone in another of his letters to Michael, Tolkien wrote that he admired his wife for being willing to marry an almost penniless man with no career and no higher prospects except the possibility of being a casualty in the First World War.

Read another story from us: The life story of J. R. R. Tolkien will be told in not one but two films

The friends of the Tolkien family witnessed a great affection between the two. They described their care and love as almost absurd when it came to wrapping birthday presents for each other; they had and frequent conversations, whether it was about health, house, or garden. They shared an immense love for their family and this, along with their love for each other, was the strongest bond keeping them together for over 50 years until death parted them.

An angry aristocrat of the Zeppelin family once forced Led Zeppelin to change their name to play a single show in Copenhagen

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Photo of LED ZEPPELIN (Photo by GAB Archive/Redferns)

Led Zeppelin were one of the most influential rock bands in history. During their prolific career, which lasted from 1968 to 1980, they received worldwide praise from critics and fans alike. Their innovative eclectic style combined elements of rock, blues, folk, and psychedelia, and kick-started many prominent musical genres of the late 20th century, including heavy metal and progressive metal. The band’s album Led Zeppelin IV, which features the timeless song “Stairway to Heaven,” is still regarded as one of the greatest rock albums of all time.

When Jimmy Page, John Bonham, Robert Plant, and John Paul Jones first started playing together in 1968, they used the name the Yardbirds. That name was used previously used by a rock band for which Page played as the session lead guitarist; Led Zeppelin used the name until Chris Dreja, the former Yardbirds bassist, threatened to sue the band over name rights. This prompted the band to search for a new name, and they first jokingly chose the name “Lead Balloon.” However, they soon replaced the world “balloon” with the more unusual-sounding word “zeppelin,” and “lead” was replaced with “led” so that fans or critics wouldn’t pronounce the band’s name as “Leed Zeppelin”.

By February of 1970, Led Zeppelin ruled the Billboard charts. The band members started working on their third album, the universally acclaimed Led Zeppelin III, and organized a month-long European tour. The tour, which started on February 23, was a treat for numerous fans across western and northern Europe: Zeppelin lovers from many nations eagerly awaited the mega-popular band’s arrival.

However, one particular aristocrat wasn’t at all happy with the idea of Led Zeppelin coming to Denmark and actually tried her best to cancel the band’s Copenhagen show.

 That aristocrat was none other than Frau Eva von Zeppelin, descendant of Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, the German inventor and industrialist who developed, manufactured, and popularized zeppelin airships in the 1910s. Eva von Zeppelin was outraged by the band’s use of her family name: she thought that their use of it was disgraceful and utterly disrespectful, so she threatened to take legal action against the band if they played a show in Copenhagen. This actually wasn’t her first attempt to stop Led Zeppelin from publicly appearing in Denmark. In 1969, she unsuccessfully tried to stop the band from appearing on a TV show after their performance in Copenhagen.

At that time, although Frau Zeppelin publicly stated that the band members were “shrieking monkeys” and eagerly tried to convince the authorities that her age-old family name was being slandered, Led Zeppelin still appeared on Danish national television. Furthermore, Page, Bonham, Plant, and Jones decided to meet the lady in order to prove that they were decent people and that their use of her family name wasn’t derogatory in any way.

According to Page, the meeting was organized at the same TV studio where the show was to film and, surprisingly, Frau Zeppelin enjoyed hanging out with the band and even agreed to let them continue using her precious family name. Unfortunately, upon exiting the studio, she noticed that the cover of the band’s first album featured the infamous photograph of the burning Hindenburg airship. In 1937, the Hindenburg malfunctioned and caught fire and the accident resulted in the deaths of 36 people. Also, the Hindenburg disaster is known as the event that ended the era of zeppelin airships.

 The album cover enraged Frau Zeppelin all over again and she decided to continue her crusade against the band. In the days before their 1970 Copenhagen show, the band realized that the she was so determined to stop them from playing in Denmark that she had hired several high-profile lawyers who were probably capable of winning a threatened lawsuit against Led Zeppelin.

Although they were planning on canceling the show in order to avoid legal troubles, the band members ultimately employed a tongue-in-cheek strategy: they decided to play the Copenhagen show under a different name. Therefore, on February 28, 1970, Led Zeppelin rocked Copenhagen under the name “the Nobs.” The name was a pun on the name of their European promoter, Claude Nobs.

The temporary name stopped Eva von Zeppelin and her lawyers from taking any legal action against Led Zeppelin. Also, the controversies which surrounded the band’s show in Copenhagen were beneficial for their publicity because newspapers across the world reported on their witty and innovative resolution to the conflict. Frau Zeppelin was doubtless left frustrated.

Florence Knight’s perfect Christmas lunch: the best roast turkey recipe

The Sunday Times, 

Simple food is made easier by careful choice of ingredients and preparation, so that as little as possible needs to be done at the last minute: exactly as Christmas should be. It’s a good opportunity to stock up on carefully sourced vinegar, chutney and cheese — indulgences that might be overlooked at another time of year.

Cotechino, a rich pork sausage found in Italian delis, is the perfect antidote to a potentially dry turkey. Brining the bird, either dry or wet, needs no specialist equipment and keeps meat tender and flavourful (but isn’t essential if you’re short of time).

For roast potatoes, try getting hold of golden wonder or yukon gold. A few russet apples or a handful of fresh rosemary will make a welcome addition before they go into the oven. A glug of port gives depth to spiced red cabbage, though I always seem to manage to find the only whole clove left in the bowl — a pungent version of the traditional sixpence.

Get ahead: December 24

Dry-brine your turkey and make the turkey-stock base from the giblets.

2 Prepare and cook the red cabbage.

3 Prepare and cook the lentil stuffing (without the apples and fresh herbs).

4 Peel and parboil the potatoes and place evenly over a cake rack in the fridge overnight.

5 Cook and prepare the cotechino.

Let’s go! December 25

10.30am Clean and halve any larger sprouts. Clean the carrots, leaving 1cm green tops.

11.20am Heat the oven to 150C (170C non-fan). Take the turkey, cabbage, potatoes and stuffing out of the fridge.

11.50am Stuff and baste the turkey, then place in the oven.

1.45pm Caramelise the apples and chop the dill and parsley.

2pm Turn the oven up to 200C (220C non-fan). Heat the oil on trays in the oven.

2.10pm Place the potatoes in the oil and roast for 15 minutes. Turn and cook for a further 15 minutes.

2.30pm Remove the turkey and wrap it loosely with foil.

2.35pm Blanch the carrots for 5 minutes and cut larger ones in half. Reduce the oven to 190C (210C non-fan) and cook for 15 minutes.

2.40pm Remove the potatoes and place them in a warm oven.

2.45pm Put the sprouts in the oven at 220C (240C non-fan) for 10-15 minutes. Make the tray gravy and finish with the premade stock.

2.50pm Add the butter, treacle and walnuts to the carrots and cook for further 5 minutes. Heat the red cabbage and lentil stuffing on the hob. Stir the apples and fresh herbs through the stuffing. Once hot, cover and set aside.

3pm Add the butter, lemon zest and juice to the sprouts. Bring everything to the table and carve the turkey.

The best roast turkey

Norfolk bronze or black are some of the best-flavoured birds and are worth seeking out as a festive centrepiece. It’s very important the turkey is at room temperature before you start cooking it; a meat probe will give you peace of mind. As a general guide, allow 40 minutes’ cooking time per kg. If you can’t find cotechino, use any fresh Italian seasoned sausage with a high fat content.

Serves 6 people


  • 20g baking powder
  • 60g fine sea salt
  • 1 x 4kg turkey, at room temperature
  • 1kg cotechino (in bags)
  • 3 white onions, peeled and halved
  • 1 bulb of garlic, halved horizontally

01 Mix the baking powder and salt and rub the mixture all over the turkey skin. Leave in the fridge, uncovered, overnight or for up to 24 hours.

02 Heat the oven to 150C (170C non-fan). Lower the cotechino in its bags into a large pan and cover with cold water. Set over a medium heat and bring to the boil, simmering for 30 minutes. Remove the cotechino and set aside to cool in a bowl.

03 Open the bags and slit down the length of each sausage, removing and discarding the skins. Mash the sausage meat and, if preparing in advance, leave in the fridge overnight.

04 Remove the turkey from the fridge and, starting at the neck, loosen the skin with your hand. Spread the fat (it will have separated) of the cotechino beneath and over the skin, covering it well. Stuff the cotechino meat into the neck cavity, then the body cavity, leaving room for some air to circulate.

05 Place the onions and garlic into a roasting tin and sit a rack over them. Place the turkey on the rack, then into the oven for 2 hours.

06 Turn the oven up to 200C (220C non-fan) and roast for a further 30-40 minutes. The meat probe should read 75C. The juices should run clear when the thickest part of the thigh is pierced.

07 Take the turkey out of the oven, cover with foil and leave to rest for 30 minutes before carving.